Compiling Tech. Resources

In ECMP 355 we have learned about many tools to facilitate 21st century education! From Blackboard to Pensieve to My Fitness Pal – it feels like we have covered it all. For my own benefit (and anyone else who is interested), here is an overview of what we have explored and some of my own favorites:

1. MOOCs

2. Blog/Writing/Classroom Places for Resources

  1. RSS Feeds/Bookmarking
  1. Communication/Assessment
  1. Social

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Photo Credit Globovisión via Compfightcc

6. Productivity/Plan

  1. Presentation/Assess
  1. Creative
  1. Media
  1. Coding
  1. Misc.

12. Autism Apps

13. Sign Language Apps/Sites

Today I also want to compile the resources from two articles: Snapshots Of Understanding? 10 Smart Tools For Digital Exit Slips and Apps That Rise to the Top: Tested and Approved By Teachers. Note: some resources repeat.

The first article discusses exit slips (an important element of assessment as… or assessment for if they are entrance slips). The article outlines these following technological options:

The second article outlines teacher-approved apps for:

1. Digital Storytelling/Presenting

2. Video Tools

3. Photo Editing

4. Augmented Reality

5. Reading/ELA/Library

*more ELA resources at kgorhamblog ELA Resources 

6. Commenting Tools

7. Coding

8. Note Taking/Organization

9. Digital Citizenship

10. Social Media

.11. Misc.

What other tools are out there? What is your favorite tool? What is a technology that you and your classroom couldn’t survive without!?

To Use Technology or Not to Use Technology: It’s Not Even a Question

Computer Hard Drive Half-Full

Today I will be reflecting on Wendy Donawa’s and Leah C. Fowler’s “The YA Reader in the Digital Age” from their book Reading Canada. This chapter focuses on using technology in ELA classrooms. Donawa and Fowler (2013) state that “technology ought to be a seamless, integral part of what [teachers use] in the classrooms, especially in literature classes. Students and teachers want and need a connected classroom” (p. 188). This quote fits perfectly with my reason for becoming a teacher: my purpose is to help students realize their potential, uncover their unknown and known interests, and gain the confidence needed to share their knowledge and perspectives with others (both face-to-face and online). In my opinion, the purpose of learning is connection; we learn to share, we share to learn. Technology is a tool that teachers can and should utilize to get students engaged with collaborative learning. Furthermore, the use of technology improves “students’ interest, engagement, learning and success with Canadian [and other] literature” (Donawa et al., 2013, p. 190). This is how I view technology in my classroom. I believe all methods of instruction need to be utilized and would suggest that the only wrong strategy is an over-used strategy. Technology – although I will have to step back and explicitly teach certain programs – is not the lesson but the tool. Donawa and Fowler (2013) suggest that “mastering digital tools and technology is not the goal of instruction, but if they are well integrated for reading, research, and analysis of literature, they motivate, engage, and support learners” (p. 179). Appropriate use of technology is vital, as our directive is to implement the Saskatchewan Curriculum. Therefore, technology is a tool in accomplishing that goal. Donawa and Fowler (2013) note that “technology needs to be relevant to the objectives, topics, and assignments; it should be high quality, fast, accessible, glitch-free, focused, and specific. Classroom sites or web-based instruction platforms can be marvelous resources for teachers’ tailor-made assignments and activities that enhance learning key principles. Teachers and students support success when they co-create relevant resources and links that connect for learning” (p. 188). Some of the platforms – albeit, not always glitch-free or accessible to all – that can be used are:

Teacher Resources Student Resources Both
Teachers Pay Teachers

Twitter (ex. #edtech; #edchat)

Youtube Youtube
Teaching Channel Prezi EBooks
Edutopia Blackboard
Facebook (ex. Sask. Teachers’ pages) WebCT
Pinterest

Upworthy

TedTalks (Ed)

Class Wiki or Blog (ex. kgorhamblog@wordpress.com; kidblog)
 Google Docs Moodle

I believe that adding technology into our repertoire does not discredit or ignore previous methods or disrupt a sound ELA curriculum. Through the use of technology in the classroom, students can develop “inquiry strategies… receptive and expressive literary skills, and form meaningful online relationships and participate in reading communities” (Donawa et al., 2013, p. 179) and still work “on classic literary strategies: phonemic awareness, oral language development, spelling, vocabulary, writing, comprehension, and fluency” (Donawa et al., 2013, p. 193) through online exploration. We are not replacing the old with the new but shifting from individual classroom studies to global knowledge sharing communities; “the impact of the digital world and on readers and reading, and on literature production, has been profound” (Donawa et al., 2013, p. 179). Donawa and Fowler (2013) note that “we have come to expect an unlimited choice of information and communication as a norm and a right” (p. 180); technology is not going away and it is time to embrace it in our ELA classrooms.

Computer Hard Drive Half Empty

With the positives always comes the negative. Although I do believe technology is something we must incorporate, there are definitely some cons. One of my biggest issues with technology is the overload! I often feel bogged down; I can never keep up to all the information that comes my way and I am sure students feel the same. As an educator with endless amounts of great resources and new information each day, it is hard to pick what to study. We need to help students – who are coming of age and figuring themselves out – navigate through a vast amount of sources and engage with positive choices.  Donawa and Folwer (2013) note that this can be done through instructional scaffolding (p. 191). But this is harder than it sounds, especially when you can find anything to back up your opinion. I often wonder how we can determine if anything is credible? Are we not more incline to believe that an article that supports our preexisting belief is more credible than something that challenges our ideas? Technology is a great example of this: take for instance the many pro. technology articles on edutopia or #edtech on Twitter versus John Lornic’s work or Fusion New’s “This is what it’s like to be one of the 75 million Americans living without Internet access:”

(Note: John Lornic (2007) suggested that “multi-tasking, although inseparable from pervasive electronic distraction, is a phrase initially used to describe the capabilities of a the computer, not the human brain” and that “the sheer glut of data itself has supplanted the kind of focused reflective attention that might make this information useful in the first place (p. 50; 59)).  Even Donawa and Fowler, who are promoting the use of technology in ELA classrooms, suggest that “the generous support of information technology and competency-based learning may well be the prudent fostering of a future workforce, but it is generally accompanied by diminished support for art, music, literature, and liberal education” and furthermore, “ceaseless electronic demands… replace human interaction or inner contemplative and cognitive activity” (2013, p. 180). How do we pick what to focus our attention on and what to believe? And how do we teach this to students when we are figure it out ourselves?

Another issue I have with technology is the lack of access. Donawa and Fowler note that “Canadian students have a media-textual world at their fingertips through home, school, or public library computers” (2013, p. 189) and although this is true for most, over 75 million Americans are without technology access (see above video). This creates a socio-economic divide and also disproves the misconception (see page 191 in Reading Canada) that students are “digitally competent and able.” Many students need explicit instruction and just as learners are ready to learn at different paces, their ability to access technology is diverse. I want to flip my classroom one day but what if I had students who did not have access to technology? Could I do it? What could I do to assist those students and even the playing field?

Searching for Files

In the end, I will utilize technology in my classroom because the pros outweigh the cons and it is not an option. It is here to stay and it is a mode of teaching that works. Not only that, but it is ingrained in our lives; it seemed like I was helpless on my trip to Minot when I had to shut off my data and couldn’t consult Google Maps or Goolge whenever I wished. Technology is part of us and the theoretical framework of an ELA classroom can be met through the use of technology. For instance, technology fosters inquiry-based learning (answering self-directed, real questions), and constructivism (“learning is a socially mediated process, where learners are actively and relationally involved in a process of meaning-making and knowledge production” (Donawa et al., 2013, p. 191). By utilizing technology students get “choice, pace, and control over their work” (Donawa et al., 2013, p. 193). Technology fosters motivation, responsibility, independence, interaction, engagement, critical thinking, exploration, and reflection. Our learners may be all over the map with technology but as teachers it is our job to start with the zone of proximal development and expand their horizons, albeit at their own pace. Furthermore and most importantly, technology = digital citizenship = citizenship.

“Digital Divide among Youth: Socio-Cultural Factors and Implications”

Technology is a very integral part to our instruction and is fundamental for a well-rounded education. It is relevant to our 21st century youth and prepares students for a working world that revolves around technology. Technology is not going away; we need to prepare students for jobs that have not even been invented yet and technology is the key ingredient. I believe our society is going to become more dependent on technology and it is crucial that we give our students the skills to “use internet resources in specific contexts” and understand “how to evaluate online content” in this globally competitive market (Parucek et al., 169).

This article by Peter Parucek, Michael Sachs and Judith Schossbock outlines a study on the digital divide based on gender, socio-economic background and culture between fourteen-year-old youth in Austria. It is interesting to look at results from other places because we can compare and contrast our experiences. The findings were “that eLiteracy must be improved by the educational system, because social constraints can otherwise hardly be overcome” (Parucek et al., 163). Furthermore, we need to try to close the gap between people of different “socio-demographic differences such as gender, social status and educational level” (Parucek et al., 163). In today’s global market, eLiteracy is as important as reading and writing.

To close the digital gap, students rely “on the equal distribution of digital literacy in society” (Parucek et al., 169). Parucek, Sachs and Schossbock express the need that “young people both have access to new services as well as the necessary cognitive capabilities to use them” (161). I thoroughly agree with this solution, as it is very practical and straightforward. However, I do not think resources are evenly distributed between schools and divisions. When I taught at a school for an ECS class there was not an IPad or computer in sight. A chalkboard hung in the very place where SmartBoards could be found in most schools. In another school, software changes resulted in over three months of computer issues making them inaccessible to students. This greatly impacted many students’ IIP goals and ability to be successful in the general education classroom. Some schools are now requiring students to bring tablets to school but this is only possible and fair if everyone can afford this expensive technology. The authors suggest promoting more female role-models in the technical field (Parucek et al., 169) and I believe this coupled with an equal access to technology would promote students to pursue and technological field. Too often, however, resources distribution is far from fair.

In order to improve eLiteracy we must change our instruction as teachers. Technology should be incorporated in our lessons and modeled for our students. My favorite part about this article was the recognition that there is “a severe lack of media competence… among the Digital Native” (Parucek et al., 169). It bothers me when people assume young adults do not require explicit instruction to use technology. If I had a dime for every time this happened to me in university I could retire tomorrow. Young people may be more proficient with technology than their grandparents but there are far too many tools and applications to be an expert in all areas and explicit instruction is still a requirement for success. Furthermore, students need to be explicitly taught how to use technology appropriately. Many teachers have posted pictures of themselves online to show their students how quickly a picture can be seen by millions of individuals all over the world and cyberbullying is also a topic that needs to be discussed.

Although explicit instruction should remain, student focus changes when we incorporate technology in our classroom. I thoroughly believe that making students remember random facts is a waste of time. Unless their goal is to win every game of Trivial Pursuit, students do not need to regurgitate information commonly found on Google. Parucek, Sachs and Schossbock note that “today’s young people grow up connected with peers and they make use of the possibilities offered by the web. To deal with questions and problems, they no longer turn to explanations offered by institutions, but rather look for support from peers on web sites” or turn to search engines (169). This makes it all the more pertinent that we not only show students how to use technology but how to critically examine what they are being told. If they do not critically look at what they read and watch, students will run the risk of being manipulated by large corporations, peers, and politicians. Students need to realize that not everything they read on the internet is true and they need to be explicitly taught how to find and identify credible sources. Teaching students to identify the intended audience and purpose – which is a major part of the English curriculum – can help students make an educated decision.

Beyond audience and purpose there are many ways we can use technology in our English classrooms: assess students online, write blogs, create online portfolios, search for resources, etc. However, this requires every student to have access to the technology used in class. As English teachers we also have to be aware of copyright laws. These laws are infuriating to me because I am from the generation that “steals” our music online and streams our movies “illegally.” It just seems like in a world where knowledge is at our fingertips, nothing should hold us back. But alas, we must follow the copyright laws if we plan to keep our jobs.

Technology is a fundamental component to a well-rounded and relevant education. We need to adapt our teaching strategies to reflect the world that our students live in. Most importantly, we cannot assume that students know how to successfully utilize all technology and critically examine what they are hearing.

Running with the Literacy Stampede

Today I will be writing about Kelly Gallagher’s “Running with the Literacy Stampede” and comparing it to Upworthy’s “5 Myths about Our Schools That Fall Apart When You Look Closer.” Gallagher talks about the literacy stampede that is approaching. Furthermore, the stampede of knowledge is also a key theme in the chapter. Gallagher notes that “more information was produced in the last thirty years than in the previous 5,000 years combined” (2006, p. 2). Furthermore, “the blogsphere is now doubling in size every six months” and “a weekday edition of The New York Times contains more information that the average person was likely to come across in a lifetime in seventeenth-century England” (Gallagher, 2006, p. 2). These stats are overwhelming, much like the stampede of knowledge we encounter every day. In a society where information is at the tip of our fingers, how do we teach our students to decipher the credible material from the invalid? How do we get students to think critically about what they are hearing and reading?

As these thoughts were going through my mind I found myself scrolling through my newsfeed on Facebook instead of completing my reading. However, this time my procrastination was beneficial; I found myself engaging with Upworthy’s video, which challenged everything I just read in the chapter about the NAEP study rates on student’s writing skills. The NAEP results in 2002 were that “two-thirds of middle school students and more than three-fourths of high school students [lacked] proficient writing skills” (Gallagher, 2006, p. 6). Upworthy’s video discussed the OECD’s ranking of countries. This study occurs every three years by assessing fifteen year old students. Usually, the States is not ranked as highly and politicians use these results to justify privatization, standardized testing, incentivizing, union busts, closing schools and firing teachers. What this video highlights is that when you just consider a ranking, you do not learn what other countries are doing right or really get to the bottom of the problem. I compare this to evaluative feedback (number at bottom of the page) rather than descriptive feedback (verbal or oral instructions about what is going well and what is not). Upworthy notes that “one myth that [these rankings] perpetuate is that student performance in the US is dropping like a rock… the United States performance has been relatively consistent” with average scores of 500 in reading (which is an above average rate). “US schools with less than 10% poverty rate lead most top performing countries” making me believe that the problem has deeper roots than students just not writing enough. The video notes that US materials/money and student-teacher ratio actually gets worse for lower achieving or disadvantaged students. This is similar to what Gallagher suggested about below-grade-level writers being asked to write less, rather than more. Although I thoroughly agree with Gallagher’s 10 suggestions, juxtaposing these two pieces of information together complicated things. There is more to the story than presented in both of these pieces.

In the end, what source do you choose to believe? Or, do you take pieces from each and construct your own idea? With an endless supply of information and opinions, do we just end up hearing what we want to hear? I think critical thinking and categorizing information is a relevant 21st century skill that we need to explicitly teach to our students. If I read one story with my students, finding a contrasting piece or a piece that complicates some of what we just read is important. If we do not help our students think critically or sift through the information, I believe we are sending ‘robots’ into society who will take everything they hear at face value. The information stampede is definitely one of the challenges of the 21st century!

 

Link to video: http://www.upworthy.com/5-myths-about-our-schools-that-fall-apart-when-you-look-closer-6?c=ufb2